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136La transition diagenèse métamorphisme (M. Dubois et F. Bourdelle)

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Bourdelle F., Benzerara K., Beyssac O., Cosmidis J., Neuville D.R., Brown G.E. Jr, et Paineau E. (2013a). – Quantification of the ferric/ferrous iron ratio in silicates by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy at the Fe L2,3 edges. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 166, p. 423-434.

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Frey M., Teichmüller M., Teichmüller R., Mullis J., Künzi B., Breitschmid A., Gruner U. et Schwizer B. (1980). – Very low-grade metamorphism in external fparts of the Central Alps: Illite cristallinity, coal rank and fluid inclusion data. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 73, p. 173-203.

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Fusion partielle, extraction des liquides et différenciation de la croûte continentale : l’exemple du Massif central français (V. Gardien)

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Montel J.M., Marignac C., Barbey P., Pichavant M. (1992). – Thermobarometry and granite genesis: the Hercynian low-P, high T Velay anatectic dome (French Massif Central). Journal of Metamorphic. Geology, 10, p. 1-15.

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Rabinowicz M., Vigneresse J.L. (2004). – Melt segregation under compaction and shear channeling: application to granitic magma segregation in a continental crust. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, p. B04407.

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Rolin P., Stussi J.M. (1991). – Décrochements intracrustaux et intrusions granitiques carbonifères dans le Morvan (Massif Central français). Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, (162), p.121-128.

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Rutter E.H., Neumann D.H. (1995). – Experimental deformation of partially molten Westerly granite under fluid-absent conditions, with implications for the extraction of granitic magmas. Journal of Geophysical Research 100, p. 15697-15715.

Sawyer E.W. (2001). – Melt segregation in the continental crust: distribution and movement of melt in anatectic rocks. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 19 (3), p. 291-309.

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Stussi J.M. (1989). – Granitoid chemistry and associated mineralization in the French Variscan belt. Economic Geology, 84, p. 1363-1381.

Thompson A.B., Connolly J.A.D. (1995). – Melting of the continental crust: some thermal and petrological constraints on anatexis in continental collision zones and other tectonic settings. Journal Geophysical. Research, 100, p. 15565-15579.

Turcotte D.L., Schubert G. (1982). – Geodynamics: applications of continuum physics to geological problems. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 450 p.

Vanderhaeghe O. (2009). – Migmatites, granites and orogény: flow model of partially-molten rocks and magmas associated with melt/solid segregation in orogenic belts. Tectonophysics, 477, p. 119-134.

Vielzeuf D., Holloway J.-R. (1988). – Experimental determination of the fluid-absent melting relations in the politic system. Consequences for crustal differenciation. Contribution to Mineralogy and Petrology, 98, p. 257-276.

Vigneresse J.-L., Barbey P., Cuney M. (1996). – Rheological transitions during partial melting and crystallization with application to felsic magma segregation and transfer. Journal of Petrology, 37, p. 1579-1600.


Le métamorphisme de (ultra) haute pression : deux siècles de débats (G. Godard)

Les références citées sont disponibles in :

Godard G. (2001). – Eclogites and their geodynamic interpretation: a history. Journal of Geodynamics, 32, p. 165-203.

Godard G., Frezzotti M.-L., Palmeri R., Smith D.C. (2011). – Origin of high-pressure disordered metastable phases (lonsdaleite and incipiently amorphized quartz) in metamorphic rocks: geodynamic shock or crystal-scale overpressure? In: Dobrzhinetskaya, L. Cuthbert, S. Faryad, W. (Eds.), Ultrahigh Pressure Metamorphism: 25 years after discovery of coesite and diamond. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 125-148.


Métamorphismes extrêmes et refroidissement de la Terre (C. Nicollet)

La bibliographie proposée pour cet article est minimale : les références indiquées ne sont que des exemples dans la nombreuse bibliographie sur le sujet.

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Cross C.B., Diener J.F.A. and Fagereng A. (2015). – Metamorphic imprint of accretion and ridge subduction in the Pan-African Damara Belt, Namibia. J. metamorphic Geol., 33, p. 633-648.

Dokukina K.A., Kaulina T.V., Konilov A.N., Mints M.V., Van K.V., Natapov L., Belousova E., Simakin S.G., Lepekhina El. N. (2014). – Archaean to Palaeoproterozoic high- grade evolution of the Belomorian eclogite province in the Gridino area, Fennoscandian Shield: Geochronological evidence. Gondwana Research, 25, p. 585-613.

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Vielzeuf D., Holloway J.R. (1988). – Experimental determination of the fluid-absent
melting relations in the pelitic system: consequences for crustal differentiation. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 98, p. 257-276.

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Les apports de l’expérimentation à la modélisation des processus métamorphiques (T. Hammouda)

Akaogi M., Yusa H., Shiraishi K., Suzuki T. (1995). – Thermodynamic properties of a-quartz, coesite, and stishovite and equilibrium phase relations at high pressures and high temperatures. J. Geophys. Res. 100, p. 22,337-22,347.

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Birch F., LeComte P. (1960). – Temperature-pressure plane for albite composition. Amer. J. Sci., 258, p. 209-217.

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Eugster H.P., Wones D.R. (1962). – Stability relations of the ferruginous biotite. annite. J. Petrol., 3, p. 82-125.

Gibbs J.W. (1875, 1877). – On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances. Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts Sci., 3, p. 108-248, 343-524.

Holland T.J.B. (1980). – The reaction albite = jadeite + quartz determined experimentally in the range 600-1200°C. Amer. Mineral., 65, p. 129-134.

Johannes W. et al., (1971). – An interlaboratory comparison of piston-cylinder pressure calibration using the albite-breakdown reaction. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 32, p. 24-38.

Le Breton N., Thompson A.B. (1988). – Fluid-absent (dehydration) melting of biotite in metapelite in the early stages of crustal anatexis. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 99, p. 226-237.

Moore R.O, Gurney J.J. (1985). – Pyroxene solid solution in garnets included in diamond. Nature, 318, p. 553-555.

Ringwood et Major (1967). – The pyroxene-garnet transformation in the Earth’s mantle. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2, p. 255-263.

Robertson E.C., Birch F., MacDonald J.F. (1957). – Experimental determination of jadeite stability relations to 25,000 bars. Amer. J. Sci., 255, p. 115-137.

Sautter V., Haggerty S.E. and Field F. (1991). – Ultradeep (> 300 kilometers) ultramafic xenoliths: Petrological evidence from the transition zone. Science, 168, p. 832-833.

Scambelluri M., Pettke T., van Roermund H.L.M. (2008). – Majoritic garnets monitor deep subduction fluid flow and mantle dynamics. Geology, 36, p. 59-62.

Smith D.C. (1984). – Coesite in clinopyroxene in the Caledonides and its implication for geodynamics. Nature, 310, p. 641-644.

Smyth J.R. and Hatton C.J. (1977). – A coesite-sanidine grospydite from the Roberts Victor kimberlite. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 34, p. 284-290.

Stachel T. (2001). – Diamonds from the asthenosphere and the transition zone. Eur. J. Mineral., 13, p. 883-892.

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Vielzeuf D., Holloway J.R. (1988). – Experimental determination of the fluid-absent melting relations in the pelitic system. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 98, p. 257-276.

Wyart J., Sabatier G. (1959). – Transformation des sédiments pélitiques à 800°C et sous une pression d'eau de 1800 bars et granitisation. Bull. Soc. franç. Minéral. Cristal., 82, p. 201-210.

Yoder H.S. Jr (1980). – Experimental mineralogy: achievements and prospects. Bull. Mineral., 103, p. 5-26.

Yoder H.S. Jr (1950). – The jadeite problem (Part I and II). Amer. J. Sci., 248, p. 225-248 ; 312-334.

Pour aller plus loin

Il existe plusieurs ouvrages en anglais qui présentent les techniques expérimentales appliquées aux problèmes des sciences de la Terre, dont ceux de Ulmer et Barnes (1987) et de Holloway et Wood (1988). En langue française, le Réseau Technologique des Hautes Pression du CNRS ( a édité des ouvrages qui, sans être restreints aux sciences de la Terre, présentent l’ensemble des techniques de hautes pressions et leurs applications. On peut aussi citer, également en langue française, l’étude de G. Gohau (1996) sur l’historique des études expérimentales appliquées aux problèmes géologiques.

Gohau G. (1996). – Expériences anciennes sur la formation des roches cristallines du dernier quart du dix-huitième siècle aux années 1850. Travaux du Comité français d'Histoire de la Géologie, COFRHIGEO, 3ème série, T.10, p.101-103. <hal-00933424>.

Holloway J.R., Wood B.J. (1988). – Simulating the Earth. Experimental Geochemistry. Unwin Hyman, London, UK, 205 p.

Ulmer G.C., Barnes H.L. (1987). – Hydrothermal Experimental Techniques. John Wiley and Sons, New-York, 538 p.


À la recherche de l’équilibre perdu (B. Dubacq)

Agard P., Augier R. and Monié P. (2011). – Shear band formation and strain localization on a regional scale: Evidence from anisotropic rocks below a major detachment (Betic Cordilleras, Spain). Journal of Structural Geology, 33, p. 114-131. doi :10.1016/j.jsg.2010.11.011.

Berman R.G. (1991). – Thermobarometry using multi-equilibrium calculations ; a new technique, with petrological applications. The Canadian Mineralogist, 29, p. 833-855.

Bickle M.J. and McKenzie D. (1987). – The transport of heat and matter by fluids during metamorphism. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 95, p. 384-392. doi : 10.1007/BF00371852.

Bourdelle F., Benzerara K., Beyssac O., Cosmidis J., Neuville D., Brown Gordon E. J. and Paineau E. (2013). – Quantification of the ferric/ferrous iron ratio in silicates by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy at the Fe L2,3 edges. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 166, p. 423-434. doi:10.1007/s00410-013-0883-4.

De Andrade V., Ganne J., Dubacq B., Ryan C.G., Bourdelle F., Plunder A., Falkenberg G. and Thieme J. (2014). – Retrieving past geodynamic events by unlocking rock archives with μ-XRF and μ-spectroscopy. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 499, 012012. doi :10.1088/1742-6596/499/1/012012.

Dubacq B., Bickle M.J., Wigley M., Kampman N., Ballentine C.J. and Lollar B.S. (2012). – Noble gas and carbon isotopic evidence for CO2-driven silicate dissolution in a recent natural CO2 field. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 341-344, 10-19. doi :10.1016/j.epsl.2012.05.040.

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Techniques, méthodes et outils pour la quantification du métamorphisme (N. Riel et P. Lanari)

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De Andrade V., Vidal O., Lewin E., O’Brien P., & Agard P. (2006). – Quantification of electron microprobe compositional maps of rock thin sections: An optimized method and examples. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 24, p. 655-668.

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Lanari P., Riel N., Guillot S., Vidal O., Schwartz S., Pêcher A., & Hattori K., (2013). – Deciphering high-pressure metamorphism in collisional context using microprobe-mapping methods: application to the Stak eclogitic massif (NW Himalaya). Geology, 41, p. 111-114.

Lanari P., Vidal O., De Andrade V., Dubacq B., Lewin E., Grosch E. G. & Schwartz S. (2014). – XMapTools: A MATLAB©-based program for electron microprobe X-ray image processing and geothermobarometry. Computers and Geosciences, 62, p. 227-240.


Dater les événements métamorphiques : exemple du chronomètre Th-U-Pb dans la monazite (A. Didier & V. Bosse)

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Didier A., Bosse V., Boulvais P., Bouloton J., Paquette J.L., Montel J.M., Devidal J.L. (2013). – Disturbance versus preservation of U–Th–Pb ages in monazite during fluid–rock interaction: textural, chemical and isotopic in situ study in microgranites (Velay Dome, France). Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 165, p. 1051-1072.

Didier A., Bosse V., Cherneva Z., Gautier P., Georgieva M., Paquette J.L., Gerdjikov I. (2014). – Syn-deformation fluid-assisted growth of monazite during renewed high-grade metamorphism in metapelites of the Central Rhodope (Bulgaria, Greece). Chem. Geol.381, p. 206-222.

Didier A., Putlitz B., Baungartner L., Bouvier A.S. (2015). – Monazite standards for SIMS δ18O analysis. Goldschmidt 2015, Pragues.

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Gardés E., Jaoul O., Montel J.M., Seydoux-Guillaume A.M., Wirth R. (2006). – Pb diffusion in monazite: an experimental study of Pb2++Th4+↔2Nd3+ interdiffusion. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 70, p. 2325-2336.

Hetherington C.J., Harlov D.E. (2008). – Metasomatic thorite and uraninite inclusions in xenotime and monazite from granitic pegmatites, Hidra anorthosite massif, southwestern Norway: Mechanics and fluid chenistry. Am. Mineral, 93, p. 806-820.

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Köppel, V. & Grünenfelder, M. (1975). – Concordant U-Pb ages of monazite and xenotime from the Central Alps and the timing of the high temperature Alpine metamorphism, a preliminary report, SMPM, 55, p. 129-132.

Mezger, K., Rawnsley, C. M., Bohlen, S. R. and Hanson, G. N. (1991). – U-Pb garnet, sphene, monazite, and rutile ages: Implications for the duration of high-grade metamorphism and cooling histories, Adirondacks Mts, New York. J. Geol., 99, p. 415-428.

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Seydoux-Guillaume A.M., Paquette J.L., Wiedenbeck M., Montel J.M., Heinrich W. (2002). – Experimental resetting of the U–Th–Pb systems in monazite. Chem. Geol., 191, p. 165-181.

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Les marqueurs des évaporites dans la formation des gemmes métamorphiques ( G. Giuliani et al.)

Banks D., Giuliani G., Yardley B.W.D., Cheilletz A. (2000). ‑ Emerald mineralisation in Colombia: fluid chemistry and the role of brine mixing. Mineralium Deposita, 35, p. 699-713.

Branquet Y., Laumonier B., Cheilletz A., Giuliani G. (1999). – Emeralds in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia: Two tectonic settings for one mineralization. Geology, 27, p. 597-600.

Branquet Y., Giuliani G., Cheilletz A., Laumonier B. (2015). – Colombian emeralds and evaporites: tectono-stratigraphic significance of a regional emerald-bearing evaporitic breccia level. In: Proceedings 13th SGA biennal Meeting, 24-27 August 2015, Nancy, France. Vol. 4, p. 1291- 1294.

Cheilletz A., Féraud G., Giuliani G., Rodriguez C.T. (1994). – Time-pressure-temperature formation of Colombian emerald: an 40Ar/39Ar laser-probe and fluid inclusion-microthermometry contribution. Economic Geology, 89, p. 361-380.

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Faryad S.W. (2002). – Metamorphic conditions and fluid compositions of scapolite-bearing rocks from the lapis lazuli deposit of Sar e Sang, Afghanistan, Journal of Petrology, 43, p. 725-747.

Feneyrol J., Ohnenstetter D., Giuliani G., Fallick A.E., Rollion-Bard Cl., Robert J.-L., Malisa E. (2012). – Evidence of evaporites in the genesis of the vanadian grossular 'tsavorite' deposit in Namalulu, Tanzania. Canadian Mineralogist, 50, p. 745-769.

Feneyrol J., Giuliani G., Ohnenstetter D., Fallick A.E., Martelat J.M., Monié P., Dubessy C., Rollion-Bard Cl., Le Goff E., Malisa E., Rakotondrazafy A.F.M., Pardieu V., Kahn T., Ichang'i, D., Venance E., Voarintsoa N.R., Ranatsenho M., Simonet C., Omito E., Nyamai C., Saul M. (2013). – Worldwide tsavorite deposits: new aspects and perspectives. Ore Geology Reviews, 53, p. 1-25.

Garnier V., Ohnenstetter D., Giuliani G. (2004). – L'aspidolite fluorée : rôle des évaporites dans la genèse des marbres de Nangimali (Azad-Kashmir, Pakistan). C.R. Géosciences, 336, p. 1245-1253.

Garnier V., Giuliani G., Ohnenstetter D., Fallick A.E., Dubessy J., Banks D., Hoàng Quang V., Lhomme Th., Maluski H., Pêcher A., Bakhsh K.A., Pham Van L., Phan Trong T., Schwarz D. (2008). – Marble-hosted ruby deposits from central and Southeast Asia: towards a new genetic model. Ore Geology Reviews, 34, p. 169-191.

Giuliani G., Sheppard S.M.F., Cheilletz A., Rodriguez C.T. (1992). – Contribution de l'étude des phases fluides et de la géochimie isotopique 18O/16O, 13C/12C à la genèse des gisements d'émeraude de la Cordillère Orientale de la Colombie. C.R. Acad. Sci., 314, p. 269-274.

Giuliani G., France-Lanord Ch., Cheilletz A., Coget P., Branquet Y., Laumonier B. (2000). – Sulfate reduction by organic matter in Colombian emerald deposits: chemical and stable isotope (C, O, H) evidence. Economic Geology, 95, p. 1129-1153.

Giuliani G., Dubessy J., Banks D., Hoang Quang V., Lhomme T., Pironon J., Garnier, V., Phan Trong T., Pham Van L., Ohnenstetter D., Schwarz D. (2003). – CO2-H2S-COS-S8-AlO(OH)-bearing fluid inclusions in ruby from marble-hosted deposits in Luc Yen area, North Vietnam. Chemical Geology, 194, p. 167-185.

Giuliani G., Dubessy J., Banks D., Lhomme Th., Ohnenstetter D. (2015). – Fluid inclusions in ruby from Asian marble deposits: genetic implications. European Journal of Mineralogy, 27, p. 393-404.

Kulke H.G., Schreyer W. (1973). – Kyanite-talc schist from Sar e Sang, Afghanistan. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 18, p. 324-328.

Lacassagne V., Besseda C., Florian P., Bouvet S., Olliver B., Coutures J.-P., Massiot D. (2002). – Structure of high temperature NaF-AlF3-Al2O3 melts: a multinuclear NMR study. Journal of Physics and Chemistry, 106, p. 1862-1868.

Machel H.G., Krouse H.R., Sassen R. (1995). – Products and distinguishing criteria of bacterial and thermochemical sulphate reduction. Applied geochemistry, 10, p. 373-389.

Ottaway T.L., Wicks F.J., Bryndzia L.T., Kyser T.K., Spooner E.T.C. (1994). – Formation of the Muzo hydrothermal emerald deposit in Colombia. Nature, 369, p. 552-554.

Pokrovski G.S., Dubrovinsky L.S. (2011). – The S3- ion is stable in geological fluids at elevated temperatures and pressures. Science, 331, p. 1052-1054.

Pokrovski G.S., Dubessy J. (2014). – Stability and abundance of the trisulfur radical ion S3- in hydrothermal fluids. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 411, p. 298-309.

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Samson I., Anderson A., Marshall D. (2003). – Fluid inclusions: Analysis and interpretation. In Series Editor R. Raeside, Mineralogical Association of Canada, Short Course Series 32, Wolfville, Canada, 374 p.

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Truche L., Bazarkina E.F., Barré G., Thomassot E., Berger G., Dubessy J., Robert P. (2014). – The role of S3- ion in thermochemical sulphate reduction: geological and geochemical implications. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 396, p. 190-200.

Yardley B., Cleverley J.S. (2013). – The role of metamorphic fluids in the formation of ore deposits. In: Jenkin G.R.T., Lusty P.A.J., McDonald I., Smith M.P., Boyce A.J., Wilkinson J.J. (Eds), Ore deposits in an evolving Earth. Geological Society of London, Special Publications, 393,


Piégeage et libération des halogènes dans les métagabbros océaniques ( C. Nicollet et F. Cattani)

Coogan L.A., Wilson R.N., Gills K.M. and MacLeod C.J. (2001). – Nearsolidus evolution of oceanic gabbros: Insights from amphibole geochemistry. Geochimica and Cosmochimica Acta, 65, p. 4339-4357.

Garofalo P.S. (2011). – The composition of Alpine marine sediments (Bündnerschiefer Formation, W Alps) and the mobility of their chemical components during orogenic metamorphism. Lithos, 128-131, p. 55-72.

Gillis K.M., Coogan L.A. and Chaussidon M. (2003). –Volatile element (B, Cl, F) behaviour in the roof of an axial magma chamber from the East Pacific Rise. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 213, p. 447-462.

Hattori K.H. and Guillot S. (2007). – Geochemical character of serpentinites associated with high- to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in the Alps, Cuba, and the Himalayas: Recycling of elements in subduction zones. Geochemistry Geophysic Geosystems, DOI:10.1029/2007GC001594.

Lafay R., Deschamps F., Schwartz S., Guillot S., Godard M., Debret B. and Nicollet C. (2013). – High-pressure serpentinites, a trap-and-release system controlled by metamorphic conditions: Example from the Piedmont zone of the western Alps. Chemical Geology, 343, p. 38-54.

Straub S.M. and Layne G.D. (2003). – The systematics of chlorine, fluorine, and water in Izu arc front volcanic rocks: Implications for volatile recycling in subduction zones. Geochimica and cosmochimica Acta, 67, p. 4179-4203.


Rôle des fluids dans le métamorphisme (Ph. Goncalves et C. Durand)

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Durand C. (2006). – Circulations fluides, transferts de matière et évolution minéralogique entre deux réservoirs à géochimie contrastée. Thèse de doctorat, Univesité de Franche-Comté, Besançon, 313 p.

Durand C. et al. (2015). – Chemical mass transfers in shear zone and metacarbonate xenoliths: Comparison of four mass balance approaches. European Journal of Mineralogy, 14.

Goncalves P. et al. (2011). – Thermodynamic modeling and thermobarometry of metasomatized rocks. In: Metasomatism and the chemical transformation of rock, eds. Daniel E. Harlov and Håkon Austrheim Lecture Notes in Earth System Sciences Springer, 806 p.

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Oliot E. et al. (2010). – Role of plagioclase and reaction softening in a metagranite shear zone at mid-crustal conditions (Gotthard Massif, Swiss Central Alps). Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 28, p. 849-871.

Putnis A. and Austrheim A. (2010). Fluid-induced processes: metasomatism and metamorphism. Geofluids, 10, p. 254-269.

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